Building Structural Systems (ระบบโครงสร้างอาคาร)
Portal Frame Structures: Design, Components, and Applications

Portal Frame Structures: Design, Components, and Applications

Portal Frame Structures: Design, Components, and Applications

Portal frame structures are widely utilized in industrial and commercial buildings, offering a versatile and cost-effective solution for achieving long-span spaces. This post explores the various types of portal frames, essential design considerations, and key components that contribute to their stability and functionality.

 Let’s explore some common types:
  1. Pitched Roof Portal Frame:
    • Features a single-span symmetrical design with a pitched roof.
    • Ideal for industrial buildings where clear spans and efficient roof drainage are crucial.
  2. Portal Frame with Mezzanine Floor:
    • Incorporates a mezzanine floor within the portal frame structure, either partially or across the full width.
    • Enables efficient utilization of vertical space for office accommodation or additional functional areas.
  3. Portal Frame with External Mezzanine:
    • External office spaces are connected to the main portal frame structure, providing an asymmetric design.
    • Offers flexibility in layout without compromising stability.
  4. Crane Portal Frame with Column Brackets:
    • Specifically designed to accommodate cranes, utilizing brackets fixed to columns for crane support.
    • Enables seamless integration of lifting equipment and efficient material handling within the building.
  5. Propped Portal Frame:
    • Suitable for larger spans where a clear span is not required.
    • Props are utilized to reduce rafter size and horizontal forces, optimizing material usage and foundation costs.
  6. Tied Portal Frame:
    • Reduces horizontal movements and column moments at the expense of reduced clear height.
    • Provides an excellent solution for structures where overall height restrictions are a consideration.
  7. Mansard Portal Frame:
    • Incorporates rafters and haunches to create a large clear span while minimizing the eaves height.
    • Suitable for applications where space restrictions or architectural aesthetics are important.
  8. Curved Rafter Portal Frame:
    • Utilizes curved rafters, providing architectural appeal and design flexibility.
    • Often employed in buildings where a curved roof profile is desired.
  9. Cellular Portal Frame:
    • Integrates cellular beams, especially useful for portal frames with curved rafters.
    • Offers enhanced structural performance while maintaining architectural aesthetics.
  10. Gable Wall Frames:
  • Located at the ends of the building, comprising posts and simply-supported rafters.
  • Provides a sturdy framework for gable walls and enables future extensions of the building.
Design Considerations: Several factors need to be considered when designing a portal frame structure:
  • Span: Typically ranges from 15 m to 50 m, with efficiency peaking between 25 m and 35 m.
  • Eaves Height: Usually between 5 m and 10 m, with the most efficient range being 5 m to 6 m.
  • Roof Pitch: Typically between 5° and 10°, with 6° being a commonly adopted standard.
  • Frame Spacing: Generally between 5 m and 8 m, with larger spacings associated with longer spans.
  • Haunches: Incorporation of haunches at the eaves and apex reduces rafter depth and optimizes moment connections.
Bracing and Stability: To ensure structural stability, portal frame structures require appropriate bracing and stability elements:
  • Portal frames offer inherent stability within their plane through rigid frame action.
  • Additional bracing elements such as purlins, shear walls, cores, or tie members may be necessary for out-of-plane stability.
  • Crane portal frames or tied portal frames may require enhanced stability measures such as tie members or fixed column bases.

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