Building Structural Systems (ระบบโครงสร้างอาคาร)
The Three Major Connections in a Single Bay Portal Frame

The Three Major Connections in a Single Bay Portal Frame

The Three Major Connections in a Single Bay Portal Frame

Portal frames are widely used in construction due to their cost-effectiveness, efficiency, and structural stability. In this post, we will delve into the three major connections in a single bay portal frame: the eaves connection, the apex connection, and the column base connection. Understanding these connections and their significance in the overall design and construction process is crucial for ensuring the safety and reliability of the structure.

Eaves Connection

The eaves connection, positioned at the lower end of the vertical column where it meets the rafter at the eaves level, plays a vital role in transferring loads from the roof and other elements down to the columns and foundation. The most common method for eaves connection is bolted connections, known for their ease of construction and reliability.

To further enhance the design efficiency and increase rafter strength, engineers often opt to weld a haunch to the rafter. The haunch, which extends the depth of the rafter, reinforces the connection locally without adding complexity to the construction process. This practical solution simplifies manufacturing and reduces costs while maintaining structural integrity.

Apex Connection

Located at the highest point of the portal frame, where the two rafters meet, the apex connection is crucial for maintaining stability and supporting the entire structure. Similar to the eaves connection, bolted connections are preferred for the apex connection due to their simplicity and robustness.

For portal frames within transportation limits (usually around 16 meters), on-site apex connections can be avoided to save costs associated with additional on-site assembly and welding. This strategic approach contributes to overall project efficiency without compromising structural strength.

Column Base Connection

The column base connection is situated at the bottom end of the vertical column, interfacing with the foundation or concrete support. As a crucial element for overall structural stability, simplicity is key in the design of column base connections.

Pinned connections are commonly preferred for column bases due to their simplicity and cost-effectiveness. They also minimize the required foundation size, effectively reducing construction expenses. However, in situations involving high horizontal forces during construction, fixed base connections may be necessary to ensure stability during erection.

Understanding the three major connections in a single bay portal frame – the eaves connection, the apex connection, and the column base connection – is fundamental to ensuring the safety, efficiency, and reliability of the structure. Bolted connections, haunch welding, and pinned connections all contribute to the overall integrity of the portal frame while optimizing construction costs and simplifying the construction process.

When designing and constructing portal frames, considering the characteristics and significance of each connection allows engineers and builders to make informed decisions, resulting in a structurally sound and cost-effective project. By incorporating these key insights into portal frame construction, we can build resilient structures that stand the test of time.


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